Country Profile: 

Population (thousand) (2015): 27,977.86
Multidimensional Poverty Index Value (2011): 0.39
Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index, Country Rank (2014): 180
Gross Domestic Product per capita, at Purchasing Price Parity (2015) (US$): 1,185.8 


In Mozambique a large proportion of the population is heavily dependent on the environment for their daily livelihoods. However, widespread environmental degradation is decreasing the social and economic benefits derived by the poor from land and other natural resources. The result is a steady decline in well-being among poor and vulnerable groups throughout Mozambique.

To support the government in their efforts to address these problems and promote sustainable development, the PEI initiated the country programme in 2005. The PEI Mozambique programme focuses on building the capacity of government at national, provincial and district level to integrate environment into economic and social plans and support these aspects of the national development plans (PRSP). Thereby the country programme is contributing to national development goals and the achievement of the overall PEI Programme outputs. 

PEI Mozambique is jointly led by the Ministry of Coordination of Environmental Affairs (MICOA), the Ministry of Planning and Development (MPD) and UNDP-UN Environment PEI Mozambique Team. In addition various sector ministries such as Finance, Agriculture, Fisheries, Tourism, Energy, Health, Mineral Resources, Public Works, Women and Social Affairs are involved in the project implementation. PEI Mozambique is also closely collaborating with the UNDP CO and is a part of the One-UN processes under the UNRC. 


Integration of poverty-environment objectives in Mozambique’s Poverty Reduction Strategy,  the Five-Year Government Programme 2010-2014 and the UNDAF resulting from successful demonstration of the links between national development, poverty reduction and sustainability through various  PEI supported studies.

9 sector annual and social economic plans include poverty-environment objectives resulting from PEI support to MICOA’s environment unit meetings and capacity building of sector environment focal points. This has further led to increased funding for implementation of pro-poor environmental objectives for several sector ministries (Mining, Women and Social Affairs, Energy, Health, Tourism, Fisheries).

Improved levels of coordination and dialogue between key institutions for example Ministries of Planning and Environment provide uniform guidance to sectors regarding the importance and processes for mainstreaming cross-cutting issues through the use of a ‘Mainstreaming Matrix’. The environment unit meetings have further become an established routine procedures for MICOA to ensure that sectors take pro-poor environmental sustainability into account in their planning and budget processes. 

The total amount of public funds spent on environment has significantly increased between 2008 and 2014 (from MTZ 312,405 million to MTZ 787,629) while the environment expenditure in relation to the total government spending has remained between 0.2-0.5 %. 

Following recommendations from the PEI supported Public Environment Expenditure Review, the Ministry of Finance opened up a new budget classification code related to climate change and MICOA decided to test the feasibility to use a wider range of the available budget codes, including those related to land management and physical and environment planning in 2013. By using the climate change budget code MICOA’s recorded expenditure on climate change has according to a preliminary analysis been recorded to MZN 26,439.56 million equivalents to $857,038.34 in 2014 

Danida commits US$2.75 million for environmental and climate change activities at the national and subnational level. The Government of Mozambique allocates matching funds for the integration of poverty-environment issues in provincial social and economic annual plans and the UNDP Africa Adaptation Programme joins forces with the Ministry of Environment to upscale the work to 11 provinces.

Local natural resource management committees have gained enhanced capacity to influence the development of local climate change mitigation and adaptation actions with particular attention to women’s role in climate and natural resource management which have helped to strengthen community resilience towards environment and climate change.

Riverbank erosion and related community relocations have been prevented in Zambezia and increased agriculture production and incomes (+318,200MT/Annually) for farmers in Gaza province have been obtained as a result of PEI supported demonstration projects

    Key Documents

    Public expenditure reviews and green budgeting

    Raising awareness, communications and building partnerships

    Influencing policy processes at national level – Poverty Reduction Strategy Processes

    Integrated Ecosystem Assessment

    Economic instruments

    Influencing policy processes at sub-national level

    Understanding the governmental, political and institutional context

    Economic Analysis

    Influencing policy processes at sector level

    Mainstreaming Resources: 
    MPD (Ministry of Planning and Development)
    INE (National institute of statistics)
    IUCN Mozambique

    c/o Forum Natureza em Perigo
    Email: [email protected]

    Centros de Desenvolvimento Sustentável – CDS
    Universidad Eduardo Mondlan